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ChatGPT and AI Literacy

Large Language Models (LLMs)

ChatGPT logo ChatGPT Open AI
Free, built on GPT-3.5
Not connected to the Internet. Trained on data only through January 2022.

ChatGPT Plus logo ChatGPT Plus

Open AI
Has a monthly fee, built on GPT-4


  • a "browse with Bing" feature that allows it to search for information on websites
  • Advanced Data Analysis" (formerly Code Interpreter)
  • GPT4-Vision (for uploading images and discussing them)
  • Image generation with DALL-E 3.

(as of Nov. 6, 2023: all these features combined into "all tools.")

A new feature for building chatbots without using code. These are called "GPTs."
(available to Plus users only)

Enterprise edition for large businesses. Teams account for small business.

Microsoft Copilot logo Microsoft Copilot Microsoft
Free, built on GPT-4 (If you use Creative mode, Balanced mode = GPT3.5)
Generate images with DALL-E 3 using Bing Image Creator or Microsoft Designer.

Includes web search results from Bing Search.

Copilot Pro Plan with more features for individuals.
Copilot for Microsoft 365 with more features for institutions and businesses.
Google Bard logo Gemini
(formerly Bard)
Free, built on Gemini Pro (as of Dec. 6, 2023)
Includes web search results from Google.

Gemini Advanced is built on Gemini Ultra (for a monthly fee)
Claude logo Claude
Not yet available
in EU countries.

List of supported countries.
Built on their own model: Claude 3 Sonnet.
Pro version ($20/mo) is based on Claude 3 Opus.

Focused on reliability and safety.
No web search results. Trained on data through August 2023.
Perplexity AI Perplexity
Free, built on GPT-3.5.

Includes web search results. Offers "Focus" choices such as
YouTube, Reddit, Semantic Scholar ,and Wolfram|Alpha.

You can use it without creating an account.

Pro account ($20/mo) allows a choice between several models:
GPT-4, Claude 2.1, Gemini Pro, and more.

Which models are the most capable?

  • ChatGPT Plus (with a monthly fee) is also based on GPT-4.
  • Claude is also very good, but no web search results. It's free to use and is trained on data up to August 2023.
  • Microsoft Copilot in creative mode) is based on GPT-4. And it's free to use.
  • Perplexity AI with their pro account -- you can get access to the more capable model (GPT-4).
  • Gemini Advanced (with a monthly fee) based on Google's Gemini Ultra, is now said to be about as capable at GPT-4.


Which models are less capable?

  • Google's Gemini (formerly known as Bard)  - the free version, is now about as capable as the free ChatGPT (3.5), since it uses Gemini Pro as the underlying model.
  • ChatGPT free version (GPT 3.5)

Other useful tools based on LLMs

These tools are based on language models like GPT-3 or GPT-4 (from Open AI).

Upload a PDF, highlight confusing text, and get a simpler explanation. Useful for reading research papers outside your field. You can also get explanations in languages other than English. 


Find answers from 175 million research papers. Elicit uses semantic similarity, which finds papers related to your question even if they don't use the same keywords. See How to use Elicit responsibly.


Scite AI assistant
A conversational tool made by Scite that lets you ask questions in simple language and get answers backed by real, up to date references. Think of like ChatGPT with real, up to date references, tailor-made for anyone discovering, understanding, or writing research.

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